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Hypothetical thought of COVID-19, diet and nutrition shifted the population in Keralites may plays a significant role in infection and diseases

The entire world is undergone by SARS-COV-2 viral pandemic [1-8]. History showed that vaccination and its impact on controlling the deadly dangerous viral diseases in different age group [9-12]. However, many countries are slowly recovering from SARS-COV-2 by systematic vaccination, but today, this viral presence is high in Kerala even after the vaccination. Nevertheless, do you ever think about why SARS-COV-2 is still in Kerala when we compare it to another part of India? I will share some interconnected hypothetical thoughts here to build your attention to the most critical problems facing our health experts in Kerala. So, these hypothetical thoughts might help some idea for researcher who are doing a systematic research interconnected with human nutrition, gut microbiota and vaccination. Also, I would like to give an attention on this curious topic to health care specialist who is interested in research and development.     

There are many schools of thought and shades of grays when it’s come up with research hypothetical questions for addressing COVID-19. Nevertheless, diet and nutrition shifted the general gut health of the population in Keralites that might be cause current situation COVID- pandemic situation. There are many hypothetical questions one can thinks about it around on COVID-19, I would like break down the issue with following question  

  • What are the significant socio-economic changes that influenced a dietary shift in Kerala, and how does it shape the current gut environment of Keralites?
  • Do the people in Kerala suffer from gut microbial leakages from an unbalanced diet?
  • The gut microbiota causes any biological issues for eradication or reducing the SARS-COV-2 causes from Kerala?
  • How does the vaccination affect the population in Kerala's overall immune system?
  • What would be the overall gut and immunological health of Kerala's before and after the vaccination?

This topic consists of a broad subject area, but I would take your attention to system-level things to resolve a critical health issue sooner for building a healthy society.

Trackback to history and shifts in our traditional dietary pattern of Keralites

Kerala is the state in India that has the most diverse diet and lifestyle[13]. Present diet pattern has blunted from foreign dietary infiltration, for example, colonization since 1498 and another shift in the gulf booms since 1965. This track-backed hypothetical historical thought suggested that our diet pattern has slowly shifted since the 14th century and had a sudden shift since after the Gulf boom. This cultural dietary infiltration has been reflected in today's health statistics of Kerala, such as non-communicable disease deaths. Nevertheless, does this issue have to be address by the fast-growing educated population in India?

What is gut microbiota? How does it important for human health?

Microbiota is the community of micro-organisms present inside a host organism, such as bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses, containing commensal microbiota that resides in the gut. This bacterial presence is dominant, which mainly consists of Bacteriodete or Firmicutes. Human is co-evolved with gut microbiota with mutualistic fashion. Modern medical science has revealed that human gut microbiota is an organ of our body or commensal. Therefore, a slight change in human gut microbiota will cause acute sickness, for example, chronic diseases such as obesity, colorectal cancer, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disorder [14, 15].

 

Diet is one of the factors that impact gut homeostasis, regulating many known and unknown biological pathways in our body [16]. Keeping a balanced gut microbiota is essential for human health. On the other hand, an unbalanced diet will cause by an unhealthy diet may contribute to weight gain, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, and other disorder. For example, see detailed changes happing on healthy and unhealth gut from figure 1 shows below.

 

Figure 1 This figure shows that how disease and a healthy gut environment impact the gut and health. 


Diet, gut microbiota and SARS-COV-2pandemic?

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in faces of patients with SARS-COV-2, the activity and infectivity of the virus in the GI tract during disease course is largely unknow

 

Summary

The human nutrition supports the gut environment during the life. Only a balanced diet, including all food groups, supports a healthy gut environment. This gut system and may provide protection against infections and overall immune system of human. There are many questions must address for SARS-COV-2-diet and gut microbiota and this can only do with advanced molecular and computational methods. 

 

Last but not least

To address SARS-COV-2 issue, researchers use a Swiss-knife rather than a hammer which means a multidisciplinary level research is required. To expand on your research idea on this topic contact us. 

 

 

References

 

  1. Li, Y. and Y. Niu, A commentary on "The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review". Int J Surg, 2021: p. 106048.
  2. Shubber, N., et al., The impacts of the novel SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on surgical oncology - A letter to the editor on "The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus and COVID-19 pandemic: A review". Int J Surg, 2020. 79: p. 109-110.
  3. Sardar, S., et al., 'COVID-19 lockdown: A protective measure or exacerbator of health inequalities? A comparison between the United Kingdom and India.' a commentary on "the socio-economic implications of the coronavirus and COVID-19 pandemic: A review". Int J Surg, 2020. 83: p. 189-191.
  4. Nicola, M., et al., The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. Int J Surg, 2020. 78: p. 185-193.
  5. Cheng, S.O., Xenophobia due to the coronavirus outbreak - A letter to the editor in response to "the socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review". Int J Surg, 2020. 79: p. 13-14.
  6. Chedid, Y., et al., What about BAME? A letter to the editor on 'The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review'. Int J Surg, 2020. 81: p. 105-106.
  7. Atar, S. and I. Atar, An invited commentary on "The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus and COVID-19 pandemic: A review". Int J Surg, 2020. 78: p. 122.
  8. Alradhawi, M., et al., Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental well-being amongst individuals in society- A letter to the editor on "The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus and COVID-19 pandemic: A review". Int J Surg, 2020. 78: p. 147-148.
  9. Grohskopf, L.A., et al., Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2020-21 Influenza Season. MMWR Recomm Rep, 2020. 69(8): p. 1-24.
  10. Liang, J.L., et al., Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep, 2018. 67(2): p. 1-44.
  11. Demicheli, V., et al., Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018. 2: p. CD004876.
  12. Jefferson, T., et al., Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018. 2: p. CD004879.
  13. Daivadanam, M., et al., Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial. BMC Public Health, 2013. 13: p. 95.
  14. Sanchez-Alcoholado, L., et al., Gut Microbiota-Mediated Inflammation and Gut Permeability in Patients with Obesity and Colorectal Cancer. Int J Mol Sci, 2020. 21(18).
  15. Price, H.C. and A. Nicholls, Primary prevention of CVD: diet. BMJ Clin Evid, 2014. 2014.
  16. Visconti, A., et al., Interplay between the human gut microbiome and host metabolism. Nat Commun, 2019. 10(1): p. 4505.